Previously School of Library & Information Studies
Friday Afternoon Seminar: Summaries.
296a-1 Seminar: Information Access, Spring 2013.
Fridays 3-5. 107 South Hall.
Schedule. Weekly mailing list.
Summaries will be added as they become available.
Friday, Jan 25 Clifford LYNCH: Introductions. Personal Digital Archiving. E-books
1. Introduction, introductions, and brief reports around the room: Recent
conferences & other announcements.
2. More on Personal Digital Archiving: Late last semester I gave a presentation
outlining my views on key research agendas in personal digital archving and closely related
areas as part of the final preparation of a book chapter on the same topic. While the chapter
is now complete, I want to further explore two topics. The first is the part of a personal
digital "life" that is represented by information in some sense held or owned by third parties
-- typically commercial or governmental -- and the various social and legal frameworks
surrounding this type of information. The second topic, which Michael Buckland has very
helpfully illuminated in recent discussions, is the challenge of understanding why material
is added to, and retained in, personal digital collections, and what this may imply about
the potential ongoing value of such material when such a collection is passed on beyond its
Friday, Feb 1: Daniel PITTI, Ray R. LARSON, Adrian TURNER, & Brian TINGLE:
Social Networks and Archival Context (SNAC) : Phase 2, Current Status and Developments.
Daniel Pitti, associate director of the University of Virginia's Institute for Advanced
Technology in the Humanities (IATH), in collaboration with Ray Larson at the School of Information
here, and Adrian Turner and Brian Tingle at the California Digital Library, has received a
grant from the Mellon Foundation to vastly expand Social Networks and Archival Context (SNAC),
a research and demonstration project
This continues work begun in 2010 with a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities
to use existing archival descriptions to make it easier to discover and locate distributed
historic records, and at the same time, build an unprecedented resource that provides access
to the socio-historical contexts (which includes people, families, and corporate bodies) in
which the records were created. This second phase will vastly expand the source data employed
in the project as well as the research and development agenda. This presentation will
describe the project, its current status and next steps.
Friday, Feb 8: Charles WANG and Natalie CADRANEL.
Charles WANG: Nuclear Forensics---A Computer Directed-Graph Visualization
Approach to Scientific Search Problem.
Charles Wang will report on his work with Prof. Ray Larson, Fredric Gey and
Electra Sutton, on an NSF-funded project entitled "Recasting Nuclear Forensics Discovery as
a Digital Library Search Problem". It takes a computer science algorithmic approach to address
the nuclear forensics search problem. Nuclear forensics discovery was recast as a digital
library search problem and databases were developed databases. A dynamic nuclear decay-chain
visualizer was implemented for various isotopes using existing web technologies. This work will
presented and compared with earlier work.
Charles Wang is a Masters student in the School of Information.
Natalie CADRANEL: Participatory Archiving: Three Case Studies.
The prevalence of born digital cultural artifacts offers archivists the opportunity
to be involved earlier on in the life-cycle of those records, before they enter the archive.
As people engage with digital technologies in more nuanced ways, the networked web provides
favorable circumstances for media creators to ensure provenance, authenticity, and custody.
I will briefly discuss three case studies that exemplify creative ways
archivists are engaging with the publics they serve. These include: the WITNESS archive,
Howard Besser's work with the Activist Archivists group in New York, and Rick Prelinger's
Participatory Archiving project at the Internet Archive.
Natalie Cadranel is a Masters student in the School of Information.
Friday, Feb 15: Peter BRANTLEY, Director of Scholarly Communications, Hypothes.is:
Designing Strategies for the Deployment of Open Annotation within the Scholarly
Peter Brantley was previously Director of Bookserver at the Internet
Archive. He is the co-founder of the Open Book Alliance, an organization dedicated to ensuring
an open market in digital book access.
He serves on the board of the International Digital Publishing Forum, the standards setting
body for digital books. Peter was previously the Executive Director of the Digital
Friday, Feb 22: Michael BUCKLAND: What is New in Libraries? -- And How New?
The techniques long familiar to librarians mainly originated in the 19th century
and were implemented with spectacular success in the 20th century (MARC, online catalogs, OCLC,
Medline, etc.). They were deeply based in the technologies used: books, cards, databases,
and telecommunications. But now, rather suddenly in the 21st century, the familiar techniques
begin to seem irrelevant as several quite new and different techniques have arisen, mostly
from outside of librarianship and based on new technologies (the Web, artificial intelligence)
and a closer integration of libraries with their communities: geo-referencing, external
authority files, ontologies, FRBR and RDA, link-based technologies, visualization, the
Semantic web, tagging, and others. How much of this is really new? How does the new relate to
the old? This situation opens the possibility for new and better forms of library service,
but also poses challenges.
Friday, March 1: Seminar meeting cancelled.
Friday, March 8: Tim STUTT and Catherine MARSHALL.
Tim STUTT: Public Search Interfaces to Plant Collections.
A brief initial progress report on my masters project on Search Interfaces for
Plant Collections. I'll present the project overview, initial secondary research,
comparative analysis, and ethnographic research for personae development.
Catharine MARSHALL, Microsoft: Exploring Social Norms with the Crowd:
A Reflection on Methods, Participation, and Reliability.
Crowdsourcing services such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) provide new
venues for recruiting participants and conducting studies; hundreds of surveys may be
available to workers at any given time. I will reflect on seven related studies Frank
Shipman and I performed on MTurk over a three year period. The studies used a combination
of open-ended questions and structured hypothetical statements about story-like scenarios
(a technique borrowed from legal education) to engage the efforts of 1,493 participants.
I'll describe the methods we used to elicit social norms and reflect on what we've learned
about MTurk as a survey venue. I'll also talk about apparent trends in data reliability,
especially when the surveys are seen from a worker's perspective. This talk describes work
done in collaboration with Frank Shipman at Texas A&M University.
Cathy Marshall is a Principal Researcher in Microsoft Research's
Silicon Valley Lab. Lately she's been working on personal digital archiving, social media
ownership, and file syncing and sharing.
Friday, March 15: Merrilee PROFFITT & Jim MICHALKO, OCLC: MOOCs and Libraries.
Friday, March 22: Discussion of Biographical Data.
Clifford Lynch, with Ray Larson, Laurie Pearce, Patrick Schmitz, and Brian Tingle.
Earlier this semester, on February 1, we discussed the evolving idea of
a national archival name and identity infrastructure and its relationship to the Social
Networks and Archival Context (SNAC) project; this also connects to a series of earlier
presentations on SNAC, a talk I gave last year on names and lives in the cultural record,
and several discussions of editors' notes. On October 12, 2012, we had a session on the
Berkeley Prosopography System. It is clear that there are interesting and poorly explored
similarities between prosopography systems at both conceptual and technical (systems)
levels. Today, I will moderate a discussion to begin to examine these questions, and in
- What are the conceptual differences between the archival name and identity infrastructure
and a prosopography?
- Are there common system components between name infrastructure and prosopography?
- Is it reasonable to envision prosopographies contributing to an archival name
infrastructure, or to deriving prosopographies from such an infrastructure?
- Are there
missing data elements that would facilitate such interoperability?
We'll begin the session with a short review of prosopography and the
Berkeley Prosopography system; we will assume that participants have some minimal
familiarity with SNAC and the national archival name infrastructure concepts, and will
try to move quickly into discussion.
For the Social Networks and Archival Context (SNAC) see the Feb 1 announcement.
For the Berkeley Prosopographical Services (BPS) see the October 12, 2012 announcement at courses.ischool.berkeley.edu/i296a-ia/f12/summary.html.
Friday, March 29: Semester break. No seminar meeting.
Friday, April 5: Tim STUTT: Public Search Interfaces to Plant Collections. Progress report.
This is a short progress report on my master's project on Search Interfaces
for Plant Collections. I will present results from a round of usability testing as well as
a low fidelity prototype that includes maps and images in the search experience. I welcome
feedback on this project by email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Tim Stutt is a second-year master's student in the School of Information's
MIMS degree program.
Fred GEY: Nuclear Forensics Search.
Nuclear forensics search is an emerging sub-field of scientific search:
Nuclear forensics plays an important technical role in international security. Nuclear forensic
search is grounded in the science of nuclear isotope decay and the rigor of nuclear engineering.
However, two elements are far from determined: Firstly, what matching formulae should be used
to match between unknown (e.g. smuggled) nuclear samples and libraries of analyzed nuclear
samples of known origin? Secondly, what is the appropriate evaluation measure to be applied to
assess the effectiveness of search? Using a database of spent nuclear fuel samples we formulated
a search experiment to try to identify the particular nuclear reactor from which an unknown
sample might have came. This talk describes the experiment and also compares alternative
evaluation metrics (precision at 1, 5 and 10 and mean reciprocal rank) used to judge search
success. Recent directions of the project have been in visualization of nuclear decay chain
For more information see: metadata.berkeley.edu/nuclear-forensics.
Fred Gey, PhD, is an Information Scientist at the Institute for the Study of
Societal Issues, University of California, Berkeley. He was a Visiting Researcher (Dec 2011
and summer 2010) at the National Institute of Informatics, Tokyo, Japan.
Friday, April 12: Clifford LYNCH and Michael Buckland.
Clifford LYNCH and Michael Buckland: CNI Report.
Highlights of the recent CNI
Members Meeting in San Antonio.
Michael BUCKLAND: The Changing Role of Documents in Society and
the Role of Cultural Heritage "Memory" Institutions.
I will present some ideas on three related themes:
(1) The impact of changes in the mediating roles of documents in society and, especially,
new forms of digital publication;
(2) Library and Information Science approaches to culture and cultural heritage institutions; and
(3) Document theory in relation to cultural heritage "memory" institutions.
Friday, April 19: Niklaus STETTLER, Michael BUCKLAND, Patrick GOLDEN, Marc BRON.
Niklaus STETTLER, Visiting Scholar, is Head of the Swiss Institute for
Information Science at the University of Applied Science, Chur, Switzerland. He is here as a
visiting scholar for three months. He has a background in records management, cultural
heritage, and digitization. He will briefly introduce himself, his research
interests, and the status of education for information studies in Switzerland.
Michael BUCKLAND and Patrick GOLDEN: Editorial Practices and the Web:
Update and progress report. A newly-funded two-year second phase
started on April 1 and will address the archiving of the working notes of
completed editing projects, the scope for making archivists' working notes
available, and incorporating techniques developed in digital humanities projects
(e.g. maps, chronologies, and social network analyses) into the everyday
work practices of editors. More at metadata.sims.berkeley.edu/en2narr.pdf.
Marc BRON, OCLC Research, San Mateo.
ArchiveGrid is a collection of nearly two million archival
material descriptions, including MARC records from WorldCat and finding aids
harvested from the web. ArchiveGrid provides access to detailed archival collection descriptions, making information available about historical documents, personal papers, family histories, and other archival materials.
Marc Bron, a PhD candidate at University of Amsterdam,
is completing three months at OCLC Research focusing on archival data and
incorporating his findings into ArchiveGrid, before returning home to The
Netherlands and finishing his information retrieval (computer science) program.
Friday, April 26: **Change of program** Tom LEONARD, University Librarian:
Sizing Up Libraries: Slackers or Over-Achievers.
I will discuss current ways of looking at research libraries.
Tom Leonard is University Library and Professor of Journalism.
More at journalism.berkeley.edu/faculty/leonard/.
Friday, May 3: Last meeting of the Semester.
Tim STUTT: Search Interfaces for Plant Collections.
This is a report on my master's project on Search Interfaces for Plant
Collections. I will present results from UX design, user testing, and a low fidelity
prototype. Full project report, poster, and presentation available at ischool.berkeley.edu/programs/mims/projects/2013/herbaria.
Tim Stutt is a second-year master's student in the School of Information's
MIMS degree program.
Clifford LYNCH: Summing Up on Names, Biographies and Identities.
Over the past two semesters we have looked at many aspects of the use of
names, biography and identies in archival description and discovery, large scale biographical
databases, prosopography, editorial notes, and the construction and management of
scholarly identity, among other scenarios. To conclude the semester, I'll try to summarize
and generalize some of what we have discovered within a broad framework and outline some
open questions that we might want to return to next semester.
** Summer special: Monday, June 10. **
Tatsuki SEKINO, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, Japan:
Time information system and basic temporal information: The other side of the spatiotemporal information science.
GIS are widely used in many scientific fields today, and have greatly contributed
to progress of information analysis based on spatial data. Recently, the spatiotemporal
information analysis is also realizing in some software. However, the most of the analysis
function in the software is not necessarily sufficient, because these types of software are
derivation of GIS, and the functions about temporal information are very weak. To realize
true spatiotemporal information science, analysis environment for temporal information is
HuTime is developed as software specialized for temporal information, and is
a time information system which has various functions to visualize and analyze temporal
information. For visualization, it can display character data (chronological table) and numeric
data (line, bar and plot charts) on the same temporal axis, simultaneously, and a user can
move and zoom the displayed temporal range of the data. For analysis, the software has
functions corresponding to marge, clip and other analysis function in GIS, and those functions
are done on the temporal axis instead of maps. When the HuTime and other GIS software is used
and linked together, it is expected that spatiotemporal analysis progress especially for
scientific fields using and temporal data mainly such as History. I will talk about this
software and related basic temporal information (e.g. event index and calendar conversion
which correspond to gazetteer and geo-coordinate conversion in GIS, respectively) in the
presentation. There a more detail information in the HuTime Web site (http://www.hutime.org/).
HuTime software is also available from the web site.
Tatsuki Sekino has a PhD in Zoology and is an Associate Professor in
the Research Promotion Center of the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto.
More at www.chikyu.ac.jp/index_e.html.
Shoichiro HARA, Vice-Director, Center for Integrated Area Studies, Kyoto
University: Information Infrastructures for Area Studies.
Area Informatics is a new paradigm to integrate individual disciplines of
area studies and to create new knowledge of areas using information technologies such as
metadata, databases, ontology, GIS, GPS and so on. The Center for Integrated Area Studies
Kyoto University (CIAS) has developed the information infrastructure to support area
informatics. Among them, databases and spatiotemporal tools are the key information tools.
This talk will introduce three interesting database systems developed by the CIAS:
1. Resource Sharing System: During research activities, researchers collect
materials and create databases. Metadata of these databases are inevitably heterogeneous,
because strict standardization will restrict potential possibilities of future progress of
area studies. But heterogeneous metadata causes headaches for
when retrieving multiple databases. To solve these metadata problems,
the CIAS has developed a Resource Sharing System (RSS) designed to integrate databases
on the Internet and to provide users with a uniform interface to retrieve databases seamlessly
by one operation. The key technology of the RSS is standard metadata whose role is to define
common names to relate data elements among databases (e.g., by using "creator" as a common
name, the RSS can relate "writer" of the database A and "author" of the database B). The
RSS is an innovated-system to link heterogeneous databases of different institutes and
realize so called MLA (Museum, Library and Archives) cooperation.
2. MyDatabase and APIs: RSS is a server-side system, which makes complicated
analysis logics and user interfaces difficult. The CIAS introduced the latest WEB and
XML technologies, and developed
MyDatabase and REST-like API. MyDatabase is designed for researchers easily to develop and
open databases without specialist knowledge of servers and database system operations.
REST-like API is the specification to use MyDatabase. According to the API, researchers
can easily develop programs for their own analysis logics and user interfaces. These
functions are necessary to change ordinal information infrastructures to new knowledge
infrastructures for humanities.
3. Ontology Database: RSS uses ontology function to relate heterogeneous
data structure, but it is limited to data element names. The CIAS is developing ontology
databases to realize more flexible and/or intelligent data operations. At present, three
types of ontology databases have been developed. One is the Gazetteer Database on Japanese
Historical Places. This database organizes more than 300,000 place names with their attributes
(rivers, lakes, mountains, shrines, temples, houses, monuments, villages, towns, counties,
states, etc.) and locations (longitudes and latitudes). The second is the calendar table.
All dates described by different calendars are grouped and ordered according to Julian
dates. This simple table can be used to convert a date of a calendar to the date of another
calendar. The third is subjects and technical terms. At present, LCSH, BSH (Basic Subject
Heading by The Japan Library Association) and AGROVOC (controlled vocabularies covering
all areas of interest to FAO, including food, nutrition, agriculture, fisheries, forestry,
environment etc.) are organized as ontology databases using Topic Maps.
Professor Shoichiro Hara, MD, has long been active in the Electronic
Cultural Atlas Initiative. He is Vice-Director of the Center for Integrated Area Studies,
Kyoto University (CIAS). More at www.cias.kyoto-u.ac.jp/en/staff/hara.html.
The Seminar will resume next semester.
Spring 2013 schedule.